The Taproot Family; T-4, T-6, T-8, T-7A, T-9A, T-11A

T-6, the basic Taproot Dance

I and many others have noted that the predominant Balkan dance has a repeating phrase of 6 counts; step-step-step _ step _,  or S,S, S, _, S,_, where the _ is one of a number of movements (kick, pause, tap, touch, lift) that don’t involve a shifting of weight.  I call it the Taproot Dance, because it seems so deeply rooted in all dance cultures of the region.  [See Taproot Dance under BEGIN>TAPROOT DANCE].  Another way of conceptualizing the dance phrase is 2 steps to the right, then a pair of mirror image [step __’s]; one to the right & one to the left.  If you think of each pair of counts or steps as one, it’s two pairs to the right and one to the left or 2 forward, 1 back – a slow advance. Most 6-count Taproot Dances have beats of even length, like walking steadily.  Here’s a Bulgarian version of the Taproot, where the _ count is a pause.  So the phrase becomes S,S, S,_, S,_,  Bulgarians call the dance Pravo.  For more examples, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>PRAVO HORO.

Even though you’re only taking 4 steps (Changing the foot on the ground, changing the foot holding your weight), it takes 6 even counts to accomplish the 4 steps.  I abbreviate this 6 count Taproot Dance to T-6.

T-4, the T-6 Lite

There’s an even simpler Taproot Dance, with a few examples that are fundamental dances for some cultures, the T-4.  It’s simply the first 4 counts of the T-6.  So it goes Step, Step, Step, _, or S,S,S,_.  You’re just dropping the last S,_, of the T-6.    I know of two cultures that have T-4‘s as important dances .  In Romania the T-4 is called the Hora Mare.

It’s probably the one dance that every Romanian knows, and it’s almost always the first dance at a Romanian wedding  party [after the wedding feast.]  It’s called Hora Mare, “big hora”, to distinguish it from gazillions of other Hora’s in Romania.  It’s “big” because everyone can do it, thus forming a big circle.  Notice this dance goes in on the left foot, out on the right, and zig-zags in & out of the circle, like pieces of a pie.  So the circle is very slowly moving to the right, counterclockwise. For more examples, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>Romanian Wedding Dances.

The other T-4 is fundamental to the Kurds of Anatolia, Iraq, Syria & Iran.  The Kurds call their T-4  Delilo, Halay, Govend – lots of names, actually, because the Kurds have several dialects, some of which are mutually unintelligible.  The Kurds start their T-4 on the right foot, hold on to each others’ pinkies, like to make little pumping or circular motions with their forearms, and clap sometimes.  For more examples, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>DELILO.

T-8 – the T-6 Plus

Another Taproot Dance is the opposite of the T-4.  Instead of dropping a Step,_, off the end of a T-6the T-8 adds one.  So in a T-8 the pattern becomes S, S, S,_, S,_, S,_, – 8 counts – 5 steps or changes of weight.  The prime example is Kolo, the national dance of Serbia, Bosnia, and Northern Croatia.  Kolo has many names- U Šest, Moravac, Užičko, etc.  For more examples, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>KOLO.


Although the T-4 and T-8 Taproot Dances have similar footwork (more or less), and similarly even counts, they lack the other basic ingredient of the T-6, which is the bi-directional feature of 2-to-the-right, 1-to-the-left; the slow advance. T-4 and T-8 tend to move in-and-out, or back-and-forth, resulting in little overall progress.


T-7A, T-9A, T-11A

The following members of the Taproot family retain the 2-to-the-right, 1-to-the-left feature of the T-6, but differ from the T-6 in that they have longer strings of steps in a dance phrase, and beats of uneven lengths – quick and slow steps.  The T-7A, for instance, means “Taproot with 7Additive or Aksak beats”.

Note: I have recently called these dances T-7U, T-9U, T-11U – the U standing for Uneven.  However most dance scholars describe uneven beats by the terms Additive, or Aksak, so I’ve changed my designation to match the more common practice. Aksak is a Turkish word that literally means “limping”.  According to Wikipedia “In Ottoman musical theoryaksak is a rhythmic system in which pieces or sequences, executed in a fast tempo, are based on the uninterrupted reiteration of a matrix, which results from the juxtaposition of rhythmic cells based on the alternation of binary and ternary quantities, as in 2+32+2+32+3+3, etc. The name literally means “limping”, “stumbling”, or “slumping”, and has been borrowed by Western ethnomusicologists to refer generally to irregular, or additive meters.”

T-9A: a Balkan Chameleon

The T-9A is a very widespread variation of the Taproot Dance.  It’s the same 2-to-the-right, 1-to-the-left phrase, but stretched by adding 2 walking steps before each of the original pairs of steps. Thus you get S,S,S,S, S,S,S,_, S,S,S,_, which is still the basic pattern of two to the right and one to the left – a slow advance.

The above dance, Sareni Tsourapi [named after the song of the same name] from  Macedonia [Greek & North – Slavic speakers call it Šareni Čorapi], is one of many Balkan dances with the T-9A pattern.  All have an added twist.   These dances have beats of uneven length, like walking 3 regular steps then one slower step.  Technically, the Slow steps are about 1 1/2 times longer than the Quick steps, but western musicians find it easier to say the Quick steps have 2 beats, while the Slow steps have 3.  Traditional Balkan musicians didn’t count beats, they just thought in terms of Quick and Slow.

So the above dance would be divided rhythmically as Quick, Quick, Quick, Slow, or Q,Q,Q,S, or 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2,3,, which adds up to 9 beats.  So T-9A means “Taproot with 9Additive or Aksak beats”.  For more about Šareni Čorapi see DANCE>3a. – LIVING DANCES>Šareni Čorapi, and also DANCE>3b.- 1st GENERATION DANCES>CHILDREN’S DANCES.

Here’s another T-9A, and a very popular one at that.  Same footwork as above, set to the Bulgarian song Biala Rosa, “White Rose”. See also Biala Rosa under MUSIC>Biala Rosa.  Notice in the first Q,Q,Q,S, phrase, a little hop has been added to the S.


Another T-9A is the Bulgarian Gankino Horo.  I know most RFD types think of Gankino as an 11-beat dance, but Bulgarians make it work with a slower 9 beats..  For more on the 11-beat Gankino, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>Gankino, Kopanitsa & more in 11/16.  Here’s the 9-beat Gankino.

Another Bulgarian name for the T-9A is Samokovsko horo.  Notice the melody used is Biala Rosa.


Here’s the T-9A danced to the Serbian song Niška Banja.  For more examples, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>Niška Banja Dance.


And in Romania it’s called Schioapa.  Typically, Romanians substitute the final touch with a stamp.  For more examples, see DANCE>3a. LIVING DANCES>Schioapa.


Recreational Folk Dance instructors teach the T-9A as a Macedonian/Serbian dance called Devetorka. Notes from a presentation at Stockton, 2005.  See DANCE>3a.LIVING DANCES>Devetorka.Devetorka 2

As taught by Ron Wixman

And Jaap Leegwater

I can find no YouTubes of a footwork pattern called Devetorka being danced in Macedonia.  However I believe it’s probably a matter of no one posting the dance, or posting it under a different name, as Macedonia is the centre of the T-9A‘s distribution pattern.  There are several YouTubes of a virtuosic accordion piece called Makedonsko Oro,  “Macedonian Dance”, in 9 uneven beats, but YouTubes of Macedonians dancing to something called Makedonsko Oro yield several different dances in several rhythms.

Ron Houston, in his 1989 Folk Dance Problem Solver article on Tri Godini, states “Dance scholars call this pattern devetorka (ninesome) because it requires 9 beats of music,
divided into 4 groups of 2 + 2 + 2 + 3.”  So Devetorka is a scholarly term used by those outside Macedonia for a footwork pattern that has no commonly-agreed-upon name in Macedonia.


The T-9A foot pattern is found throughout the Balkans, under as many names as there are 9-beat songs to dance it to.  If the term T-9A sounds too technical to you, call the pattern Devetorkajust don’t think of it as an exclusively Macedonian dance.


T-11A: Gankino Horo



T-7A: Taproot, Macedonian Style

Most Recreational Folk Dancers know this dance as Lesnoto, but Macedonians themselves use other terms (see Lesnoto is not a Macedonian Dance under DANCE>3A.-LIVING DANCES>Lesnoto is not…).  The structure of the T-7A is the same as the T-6;  2-to-the-right, 1-to-the-left; but there are more beats, and the beats are of uneven length.  In a classic T-6, each pair of steps is 2 slow beats.  The 3 pairs of steps add up to 6 beats, or one dance phrase.

In a T-7A each pair of steps add up to 7 fast beats – a Slow (3 quick counts) and two Quicks (2 quick counts each). 3+2+2=7 counts.  The 3 pairs of steps that make a T-7A phrase add up to 21 fast counts.  In the YouTube below, from the 57-second mark to 1:13, he does 2 2/3 sets of 2-to-the-right, 1-to-the-left.  56 fast counts total.

A Hybrid T-7A – Eleno Mome

Eleno Mome is a classic example of how Balkan rhythms don’t fit neatly into Western notions of what constitutes a beat.  My not-too-trained ear hears this rhythm as Slow, Slow, Quick-Slow, or 1,2,1,2,1,1,2, or 7 beats.  However the 2008 notes put out by the Folk Dance Federation of California

says “Musicians may select meter 7/8 (2,2,1,2), 11/16 (3,3,2,3), 12/16 (4,3,2,3), 13/16 (4,4,2,3) or in between.”  The notes agree that all those combinations sound like Slow, Slow, Quick-Slow.

To me what’s important about Eleno Mome is how it is a variation of the Taproot family.  I call it a T-7A because it follows the 2-to-the-right, 1-to-the-left Taproot pattern, and I hear 7 Additive or Aksak beats.  Also, Eleno Mome contains the basic T-6 Taproot pattern of 3 pairs of steps – S, S, S, __, S, __. In this case the __ is a hop on the weighted foot, AND [at the same time] a kick with the unweighted foot.  So the pattern then becomes S,S, S,hk, S,hk.  However there’s an additional spice – after each pair, a side-behind pair is inserted.  So the dance becomes S,S,side-behind; S,hk,side-behind; S,hk,side-behind. That’s three 7-count (Slow, Slow, Quick-Slow) pairs.  The Quick-step is always the side-step.

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