*a Living dance is a 1st Generation dance that is still performed in the country of origin (or immigrant communities) as part of a social event like a wedding where others can participate (not for an audience) by people who learned the dance informally (from friends and relatives by observation and imitation, not in a classroom situation). For more information, click here and here.
Gayda, the Turkish spelling (pronounced ‘giy-dah’) is a dance known throughout the lower Balkans. There are some variations in its choreography, but the name, music, and basic step are surprisingly uniform. Gajda (the English transliteration of the Macedonian Гайда) means ‘bagpipe’. In Albanian the dance is known as Vallja e Gajde; in Greek – Gainta – Γκάιντα; in Bulgaria, Gaida Avasi – Гайда Аваси; in Turkey, Arnavut havası (meaning ‘Albanian dance’).
Until recently, the bagpipe (and usually also a drum) was the favored instrument for accompanying Gajda, and a particular bagpipe melody was THE melody for this dance. Indeed, that melody is still used, even when played by a clarinet, saxophone, synthesizer, etc.
Below is famed dance instructor Pece Atanasovski leading a ‘traditional’ orchestral version.
Here’s a typical wedding (Svadba) in Macedonia, featuring a simple Gajda. Notice it’s our old friend the Taproot Dance.
I’m not sure, but I think the following YouTube shows a Slavic Macedonian Gajda. Wherever it’s ethnicity, it’s a fabulous example of the interaction between musicians and audience. What a time these guys are having!
Gajda is generally considered a Macedonian dance – Greater Macedonia that is, for the Greeks consider Gajda one of their dances. In Greece today, however, I can only find YouTubes by performing groups. It’s not ‘Living’ there as in North Macedonia. An exception is expat groups. Here’s a Toronto, Canada, based organization representing the Lerin region, in what is now Greek Macedonia, doing what they call Lerinsko Oro.
Otherwise, it’s performing groups. Here’s one from 1984.
And another more recent
Below is a 10-step version.
Yet another group that considers Gajda their dance is the Albanians, especially the Albanians in and near Macedonia. Indeed, they dance even the slow opening steps with particular relish.
Bulgarians also dance Gajda, at least in Pirin, the Macedonian region. There they call it Gajda Avasi– Avasi being the Turkish word for dance. When they start dancing fast they switch to a 16-step version.
Turkey was the place anyone considered Muslim, or Turkish, was expelled to after the Ottomans’ European defeats of 1912. So Turkey today contains expat communities of Macedonians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Roma, etc. Each has their own version of Gayda. Turks call Albanians Arnavut.
John Uhlemann’s comment: The long step Gaïda that shows up in Pirin and parts of the Republic of Macedonia is the same step pattern as Maleshevsko – the weight changes per measure is the same as basic Serbian Kolo, but it is always R, L, R-L, R, L-R, L, R, lift (all to the right, followed by going left with-)L, R, L, lift, R, lift, L, lift. This pattern in Pirin, when done to fast 7/8 music, is called Chetvorka. Other dances called “Gaïda” are found in Northern Macedonian Greece. Gaïda Flambouro is one such, and has a very long pattern. I have seen videos of it, and Michael Ginsburg has been teaching it, as well as several visiting Greek teachers. Finally, they do a variation in Korça, Albania, which is a fairly recent dance. Steve Kotansky is teaching that, and I saw it in Albania. The structure for that is completely different from all of the above.