Papuri Փափուռի / Karsi Bar- Armenia, Kurdistan, Turkey

NOTE: there is also a dance called Papuri from the Philippines – no relation.

Origins of Papuri

Papuri (also spelled Papouri, Pampuri, Pampouri, Pamphorig, Pomporee, Pompoureeg, Pomporii) is an ancient dance from eastern Anatolia, especially the regions of Moush, Taron, Sassoun, Van, and Alashkert.

Moush, Armenia, now Muş Turkey
Taron (Daron), now part of the Turkish province of Muş
Sassoun, now part of the Turkish province of Batman
Van region
Eleşkirt is a town and district of Ağrı Province in Turkey. Its name is a transference from Alashkert (Armenian: Ալաշկերտ Alaškert), the valley’s former administrative centre but now a village known as Toprakkale. At the time of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 approximately half of the population consisted of Armenians and the rest of Kurds and Turks.[3]

There are many theories as to the meaning of the word Papuri. Gary Lind-Sinanian, in his Stockton notes (1985, 86) says “The dance was particularly popular in areas with a large Kurdish population, which may indicate Kurdish origins.” Tineke van Geel (Stockton, 2008) says “The name is derived from Kurdish and means ‘old man‘.”

Papuri among Kurds and Turks

It’s difficult to find detailed information in English on dances of the Kurds. Here’s one tantalizingly brief website, which mentions Papuri. If anyone can find YouTubes of Kurds dancing something similar to Papuri, perhaps with another name, I’d love to see them.

I’ve tried googling ‘Papuri‘ using various spellings, coupling it with ‘Turkish dance’ and ‘Kurdish dance’, and came up with almost nothing. I did find a Papuri in the middle of a Turkish teaching YouTube of dances from Van titled Van Halk Oyunlari, so it seems Papuri to the Turks is an obscure ‘historical’ dance suitable only for performing groups.

Papuri is demonstrated at 17:30 and taught in detail starting at 14:52

Ron Houston, in his 2016 Folk Dance Problem Solver, provides notes for a dance in 4 parts, called Papurı, presented to Michael Herman in 1963 as a Turkish dance by Çavit Kangöz. Ron adds “Subsequent presentations of Papuri-type dances have used similar figures or a subset of Kangöz’s figures.” Ron then goes on to state “In virtually every counry or ethnic group in the world, ethnographers took village dances to state-sponsored dance academies, where choreographers enhanced and standardized the dances for partriotic display purposes. State ensembles and diaspora communities accepted the choreographies as valid expressions of folk art, as did American recreational international folk dancers. Many excellent teachers have presented dances from this Papuri genre.”

Papuri in the Republic of Armenia

With Armenians, it’s another story! Whatever its origins, Armenians consider it one of their core dances. Lind-Sinanian, in his 1985 Stockton notes, writes “PAPURI is the name of a large class of related dances done throughout Western Armenia [Eastern Anatolia – DB]. Considerable variety in the steps and melodies existed, reflecting the different regions of Armenia.

Very few Armenians remain in ‘Western’ Armenia – they’ve either dispersed around the world, or moved to ‘Eastern’ Armenia – the country named the Republic of Armenia on today’s maps. In the Republic of Armenia, the situation with the dance called Papuri is fairly simple. I googled the words ‘Papuri, Armenian dance’, and everything I come up with located in the Republic of Armenia is related to the dancer and Dance Director of the Karin Ensemble, researcher and all-round cultural icon Gagik Ginosyan. Below he’s leading his Kairn Ensemble in Papuri.

Here he is teaching Papuri.
And leading a generation of patriotic Armenians in a cultural renaissance.
Even when Mr. Ginosyan is not involved, his choreography and music are used.

Papuri in North America

The situation outside the Republic of Armenia is different. Various groups of Armenians from different regions left their homeland at different times, bringing their specific ways of dancing with them, and congregating in specific cities. So in the USA, for instance, the Armenian dance repertoire is quite different in New York than, say, Fresno California.

This Papouri is from the village of Khorkom, Van. The dance was introduced to the Armenian Folk Dance Society of New York by Ashod Mouradian who was uncle of the famous painter Vosdanig Adoian (Arshile Gorky). The Khorkom Papouri has three distinctive parts. Notice the first melody is similar to the melody of the Shoghaken melody above.
June 24, 2012 @ St. Gregory the Enlightener in White Plains NY

The music for above, called Pompoury, (same arrangement, but an earlier recording by the John Vartan Ensemble) may be purchased from Smithsonian Folkways here:

Same dance as ‘Khorkom’, but different music – Karsi Bar.
Here’s the melody for the Papuri (‘Khorkom’) demonstrated by the Fausts.
Karsi Bar, John Bilezikjian, Oud
Music and dance – same as the ‘Khorkom’ – this time called by the music name, Karsi Bar. Among the comments with this YouTube, Gary Lind-Sinanian wrote:

The particular version of Karsi Bar, above, was recorded by the Trio Caucasianne. See:

So how did the same dance end up with 2 very different pieces of music? Well, it seems the ‘Khorkom’ Papuri was not well-known among reecreational folk dancers, especially in the western US, so around 1976 Ron Wixman taught it at Stockton. His notes say “Actual music is unavailable”, so apparently he substituted the Trio Caucasianne recording. At least that was the music used when I learned it from him in 1982. Note Lind-Sinanian didn’t teach at Stockton (using the ‘correct’ music) until 1985. Also taught at Stockton were a ‘Fresno’ version of Papuri by Frances Ajoian (1955, repeated by John Filcich in 1962), a Vanetsi/Boston version by Lind-Sinanian in 1986, and an ‘Armenian’ version by Tineke van Geel in 2008. Filcich also taught a Karsi Bar in 1970, (learned in 1960 from Vilma Machette).

Ontario, Canada. Same music as the ‘Khorkom’ above, though somewhat different 8-bar dance.
Tucson group. A different 8-bar Papuri, to the Karsi Bar recording by the Trio Caucasianne.

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